Activation of a protumorigenic IFNγ/STAT1/IRF-1 signaling pathway in keratinocytes following exposure to solar ultraviolet light

Nicholas Blazanin, Tianyi Cheng, Steve Carbajal, John DiGiovanni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in response to acute solar ultraviolet (SUV) radiation in mouse epidermis. Analysis of the epidermis from SUV-irradiated mice revealed rapid phosphorylation of STAT1 (pSTAT1) on both tyrosine (tyr701) and serine (ser727) residues and increased levels of IRF-1 while later timepoints showed increased levels of unphosphorylated STAT1 (uSTAT1). STAT1 activation led to upregulation of several proinflammatory chemokine mRNAs in epidermis including Cxcl9, Cxcl10, and Ccl2, as well as, the immune checkpoint inhibitor Pd-l1. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2/COX2) were upregulated in epidermis following exposure to SUV. Mice with keratinocyte-specific STAT1 deletion did not exhibit increased IRF-1 or proinflammatory gene expression in epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal COX-2 induction after SUV exposure was significantly reduced in mice with keratinocyte-specific deletion of STAT1. Additionally, SUV irradiation rapidly upregulated interferon gamma (IFNγ) mRNA in the epidermis and that skin resident epidermal CD3 + T-cells were the source of IFNγ production. IFNγ receptor-deficient mice confirmed dependency of STAT1 activation, proinflammatory gene expression and COX-2 upregulation in the epidermis on paracrine IFNγ signaling. Furthermore, keratinocyte-specific STAT1-deficiency reduced proliferation and hyperplasia due to SUV irradiation and this was associated with decreased immune infiltration of mast cells in the dermis. Collectively, the current results demonstrate that exposure to SUV leads to upregulation of IFNγ and downstream pSTAT1/IRF-1/uSTAT1 signaling in the epidermis. Further study of this pathway could lead to identification of novel targets for the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1656-1669
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular Carcinogenesis
Volume58
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

STAT1 Transcription Factor
Ultraviolet Rays
Keratinocytes
Epidermis
Interferon-gamma
Up-Regulation
Messenger RNA
Transcriptional Activation
Phosphorylation
Gene Expression
Skin Neoplasms
Cyclooxygenase 2
Dermis
Chemokines
Mast Cells
Serine
Hyperplasia
Tyrosine
Radiation
T-Lymphocytes

Keywords

  • STAT1
  • inflammation
  • solar UV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Activation of a protumorigenic IFNγ/STAT1/IRF-1 signaling pathway in keratinocytes following exposure to solar ultraviolet light. / Blazanin, Nicholas; Cheng, Tianyi; Carbajal, Steve; DiGiovanni, John.

In: Molecular Carcinogenesis, Vol. 58, No. 9, 01.01.2019, p. 1656-1669.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "In this study, we evaluated the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in response to acute solar ultraviolet (SUV) radiation in mouse epidermis. Analysis of the epidermis from SUV-irradiated mice revealed rapid phosphorylation of STAT1 (pSTAT1) on both tyrosine (tyr701) and serine (ser727) residues and increased levels of IRF-1 while later timepoints showed increased levels of unphosphorylated STAT1 (uSTAT1). STAT1 activation led to upregulation of several proinflammatory chemokine mRNAs in epidermis including Cxcl9, Cxcl10, and Ccl2, as well as, the immune checkpoint inhibitor Pd-l1. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2/COX2) were upregulated in epidermis following exposure to SUV. Mice with keratinocyte-specific STAT1 deletion did not exhibit increased IRF-1 or proinflammatory gene expression in epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal COX-2 induction after SUV exposure was significantly reduced in mice with keratinocyte-specific deletion of STAT1. Additionally, SUV irradiation rapidly upregulated interferon gamma (IFNγ) mRNA in the epidermis and that skin resident epidermal CD3 + T-cells were the source of IFNγ production. IFNγ receptor-deficient mice confirmed dependency of STAT1 activation, proinflammatory gene expression and COX-2 upregulation in the epidermis on paracrine IFNγ signaling. Furthermore, keratinocyte-specific STAT1-deficiency reduced proliferation and hyperplasia due to SUV irradiation and this was associated with decreased immune infiltration of mast cells in the dermis. Collectively, the current results demonstrate that exposure to SUV leads to upregulation of IFNγ and downstream pSTAT1/IRF-1/uSTAT1 signaling in the epidermis. Further study of this pathway could lead to identification of novel targets for the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer.",
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