Effect of interpregnancy weight change on perinatal outcomes: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Noor E.W.D. Teulings, Katya L. Masconi, Susan E. Ozanne, Catherine E. Aiken, Angela M. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Background: Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, evidence is sparse about the effects of interpregnancy weight change on the risk of adverse perinatal complications in a subsequent pregnancy. The current study aims to assess the effect of interpregnancy weight change on the risk of developing gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, preterm birth, or delivering a large- or small-for-gestational age neonate. Methods: Pubmed, Ovid Embase, ClinicalTrial.gov and the Cochrane library were systematically searched up until July 24th, 2019. Interpregnancy weight change was defined as the difference between pre-pregnancy weight of an index pregnancy and a consecutive pregnancy. Inclusion criteria included full text original articles reporting quantitative data about interpregnancy weight change in multiparous women with any time interval between consecutive births and the risk of any perinatal complication of interest. Studies reporting adjusted odds ratios and a reference group of - 1 to + 1 BMI unit change between pregnancies were harmonised by meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-three cohort studies identified a total of 671,906 women with two or more consecutive pregnancies. Seven of these studies were included in the meta-analysis (280,672 women). Interpregnancy weight gain was consistently associated with a higher risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension and large-for-gestational age births. In contrast, interpregnancy weight loss was associated with a lower risk of delivering a large-for-gestational age neonate. The effect magnitude (relative risk) of interpregnancy weight gain on pregnancy induced hypertension or delivering a large-for-gestational age neonate was greater among women with a normal BMI in the index pregnancy compared to women with a starting BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Conclusion: These findings confirm that interpregnancy weight change impacts the risk of developing perinatal complications in a subsequent pregnancy. This provides evidence in support of guidelines encouraging women to achieve post-partum weight loss, as their risk of perinatal complications might be minimised if they return to their pre-pregnancy weight before conceiving again. Prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017067326).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number386
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 28 2019

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Meta-Analysis
Weights and Measures
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
Gestational Age
Gestational Diabetes
Newborn Infant
Pre-Eclampsia
Weight Gain
Weight Loss
Parturition
Premature Birth
Pregnancy Outcome
PubMed
Libraries
Cohort Studies
Research Design
Obesity
Odds Ratio
Guidelines

Keywords

  • BMI
  • Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
  • Interpregnancy weight change
  • Meta-analysis
  • Obesity
  • Perinatal complications
  • Systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Effect of interpregnancy weight change on perinatal outcomes : Systematic review and meta-analysis. / Teulings, Noor E.W.D.; Masconi, Katya L.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Aiken, Catherine E.; Wood, Angela M.

In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, Vol. 19, No. 1, 386, 28.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Teulings, Noor E.W.D. ; Masconi, Katya L. ; Ozanne, Susan E. ; Aiken, Catherine E. ; Wood, Angela M. / Effect of interpregnancy weight change on perinatal outcomes : Systematic review and meta-analysis. In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019 ; Vol. 19, No. 1.
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AU - Ozanne, Susan E.

AU - Aiken, Catherine E.

AU - Wood, Angela M.

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N2 - Background: Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, evidence is sparse about the effects of interpregnancy weight change on the risk of adverse perinatal complications in a subsequent pregnancy. The current study aims to assess the effect of interpregnancy weight change on the risk of developing gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, preterm birth, or delivering a large- or small-for-gestational age neonate. Methods: Pubmed, Ovid Embase, ClinicalTrial.gov and the Cochrane library were systematically searched up until July 24th, 2019. Interpregnancy weight change was defined as the difference between pre-pregnancy weight of an index pregnancy and a consecutive pregnancy. Inclusion criteria included full text original articles reporting quantitative data about interpregnancy weight change in multiparous women with any time interval between consecutive births and the risk of any perinatal complication of interest. Studies reporting adjusted odds ratios and a reference group of - 1 to + 1 BMI unit change between pregnancies were harmonised by meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-three cohort studies identified a total of 671,906 women with two or more consecutive pregnancies. Seven of these studies were included in the meta-analysis (280,672 women). Interpregnancy weight gain was consistently associated with a higher risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension and large-for-gestational age births. In contrast, interpregnancy weight loss was associated with a lower risk of delivering a large-for-gestational age neonate. The effect magnitude (relative risk) of interpregnancy weight gain on pregnancy induced hypertension or delivering a large-for-gestational age neonate was greater among women with a normal BMI in the index pregnancy compared to women with a starting BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Conclusion: These findings confirm that interpregnancy weight change impacts the risk of developing perinatal complications in a subsequent pregnancy. This provides evidence in support of guidelines encouraging women to achieve post-partum weight loss, as their risk of perinatal complications might be minimised if they return to their pre-pregnancy weight before conceiving again. Prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017067326).

AB - Background: Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, evidence is sparse about the effects of interpregnancy weight change on the risk of adverse perinatal complications in a subsequent pregnancy. The current study aims to assess the effect of interpregnancy weight change on the risk of developing gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, preterm birth, or delivering a large- or small-for-gestational age neonate. Methods: Pubmed, Ovid Embase, ClinicalTrial.gov and the Cochrane library were systematically searched up until July 24th, 2019. Interpregnancy weight change was defined as the difference between pre-pregnancy weight of an index pregnancy and a consecutive pregnancy. Inclusion criteria included full text original articles reporting quantitative data about interpregnancy weight change in multiparous women with any time interval between consecutive births and the risk of any perinatal complication of interest. Studies reporting adjusted odds ratios and a reference group of - 1 to + 1 BMI unit change between pregnancies were harmonised by meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-three cohort studies identified a total of 671,906 women with two or more consecutive pregnancies. Seven of these studies were included in the meta-analysis (280,672 women). Interpregnancy weight gain was consistently associated with a higher risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension and large-for-gestational age births. In contrast, interpregnancy weight loss was associated with a lower risk of delivering a large-for-gestational age neonate. The effect magnitude (relative risk) of interpregnancy weight gain on pregnancy induced hypertension or delivering a large-for-gestational age neonate was greater among women with a normal BMI in the index pregnancy compared to women with a starting BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Conclusion: These findings confirm that interpregnancy weight change impacts the risk of developing perinatal complications in a subsequent pregnancy. This provides evidence in support of guidelines encouraging women to achieve post-partum weight loss, as their risk of perinatal complications might be minimised if they return to their pre-pregnancy weight before conceiving again. Prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017067326).

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