Elevated circulating TGFβ1 during acute liver failure activates TGFβR2 on cortical neurons and exacerbates neuroinflammation and hepatic encephalopathy in mice

Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Anca D. Petrescu, Elaina Williams, Brandi Jefferson, Alison Thomas, Ankita Brahmaroutu, Sharon DeMorrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Acute liver failure resulting from drug-induced liver injury can lead to the development of neurological complications called hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hepatic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is upregulated due to liver failure in mice and inhibiting circulating TGFβ reduced HE progression. However, the specific contributions of TGFβ1 on brain cell populations and neuroinflammation during HE are not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize hepatic and brain TGFβ1 signaling during acute liver failure and its contribution to HE progression using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches. Methods: C57Bl/6 or neuron-specific transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFβR2) null mice (TGFβR2 ΔNeu ) were treated with azoxymethane (AOM) to induce acute liver failure and HE. The activity of circulating TGFβ1 was inhibited in C57Bl/6 mice via injection of a neutralizing antibody against TGFβ1 (anti-TGFβ1) prior to AOM injection. In all mouse treatment groups, liver damage, neuroinflammation, and neurological deficits were assessed. Inflammatory signaling between neurons and microglia were investigated in in vitro studies through the use of pharmacological inhibitors of TGFβ1 signaling in HT-22 and EOC-20 cells. Results: TGFβ1 was expressed and upregulated in the liver following AOM injection. Pharmacological inhibition of TGFβ1 after AOM injection attenuated neurological decline, microglia activation, and neuroinflammation with no significant changes in liver damage. TGFβR2 ΔNeu mice administered AOM showed no effect on liver pathology but significantly reduced neurological decline compared to control mice. Microglia activation and neuroinflammation were attenuated in mice with pharmacological inhibition of TGFβ1 or in TGFβR2 ΔNeu mice. TGFβ1 increased chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and decreased C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) expression in HT-22 cells and reduced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) expression, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) expression, and phagocytosis activity in EOC-20 cells. Conclusion: Increased circulating TGFβ1 following acute liver failure results in activation of neuronal TGFβR2 signaling, driving neuroinflammation and neurological decline during AOM-induced HE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number69
JournalJournal of Neuroinflammation
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2 2019

Fingerprint

Transforming Growth Factor beta Receptors
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Acute Liver Failure
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Azoxymethane
Neurons
Liver
Microglia
Pharmacology
Injections
Ligands
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
Liver Failure
Brain
Neutralizing Antibodies
Interleukin-1beta
Phagocytosis
Chemokines
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Keywords

  • Acute liver failure
  • Azoxymethane
  • Microglia
  • Necrosis
  • Neuroinflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Elevated circulating TGFβ1 during acute liver failure activates TGFβR2 on cortical neurons and exacerbates neuroinflammation and hepatic encephalopathy in mice. / McMillin, Matthew; Grant, Stephanie; Frampton, Gabriel; Petrescu, Anca D.; Williams, Elaina; Jefferson, Brandi; Thomas, Alison; Brahmaroutu, Ankita; DeMorrow, Sharon.

In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, Vol. 16, No. 1, 69, 02.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McMillin, Matthew ; Grant, Stephanie ; Frampton, Gabriel ; Petrescu, Anca D. ; Williams, Elaina ; Jefferson, Brandi ; Thomas, Alison ; Brahmaroutu, Ankita ; DeMorrow, Sharon. / Elevated circulating TGFβ1 during acute liver failure activates TGFβR2 on cortical neurons and exacerbates neuroinflammation and hepatic encephalopathy in mice. In: Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2019 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Acute liver failure resulting from drug-induced liver injury can lead to the development of neurological complications called hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hepatic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is upregulated due to liver failure in mice and inhibiting circulating TGFβ reduced HE progression. However, the specific contributions of TGFβ1 on brain cell populations and neuroinflammation during HE are not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize hepatic and brain TGFβ1 signaling during acute liver failure and its contribution to HE progression using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches. Methods: C57Bl/6 or neuron-specific transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFβR2) null mice (TGFβR2 ΔNeu ) were treated with azoxymethane (AOM) to induce acute liver failure and HE. The activity of circulating TGFβ1 was inhibited in C57Bl/6 mice via injection of a neutralizing antibody against TGFβ1 (anti-TGFβ1) prior to AOM injection. In all mouse treatment groups, liver damage, neuroinflammation, and neurological deficits were assessed. Inflammatory signaling between neurons and microglia were investigated in in vitro studies through the use of pharmacological inhibitors of TGFβ1 signaling in HT-22 and EOC-20 cells. Results: TGFβ1 was expressed and upregulated in the liver following AOM injection. Pharmacological inhibition of TGFβ1 after AOM injection attenuated neurological decline, microglia activation, and neuroinflammation with no significant changes in liver damage. TGFβR2 ΔNeu mice administered AOM showed no effect on liver pathology but significantly reduced neurological decline compared to control mice. Microglia activation and neuroinflammation were attenuated in mice with pharmacological inhibition of TGFβ1 or in TGFβR2 ΔNeu mice. TGFβ1 increased chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and decreased C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) expression in HT-22 cells and reduced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1{\ss}) expression, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) expression, and phagocytosis activity in EOC-20 cells. Conclusion: Increased circulating TGFβ1 following acute liver failure results in activation of neuronal TGFβR2 signaling, driving neuroinflammation and neurological decline during AOM-induced HE.",
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AU - Grant, Stephanie

AU - Frampton, Gabriel

AU - Petrescu, Anca D.

AU - Williams, Elaina

AU - Jefferson, Brandi

AU - Thomas, Alison

AU - Brahmaroutu, Ankita

AU - DeMorrow, Sharon

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N2 - Background: Acute liver failure resulting from drug-induced liver injury can lead to the development of neurological complications called hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hepatic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is upregulated due to liver failure in mice and inhibiting circulating TGFβ reduced HE progression. However, the specific contributions of TGFβ1 on brain cell populations and neuroinflammation during HE are not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize hepatic and brain TGFβ1 signaling during acute liver failure and its contribution to HE progression using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches. Methods: C57Bl/6 or neuron-specific transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFβR2) null mice (TGFβR2 ΔNeu ) were treated with azoxymethane (AOM) to induce acute liver failure and HE. The activity of circulating TGFβ1 was inhibited in C57Bl/6 mice via injection of a neutralizing antibody against TGFβ1 (anti-TGFβ1) prior to AOM injection. In all mouse treatment groups, liver damage, neuroinflammation, and neurological deficits were assessed. Inflammatory signaling between neurons and microglia were investigated in in vitro studies through the use of pharmacological inhibitors of TGFβ1 signaling in HT-22 and EOC-20 cells. Results: TGFβ1 was expressed and upregulated in the liver following AOM injection. Pharmacological inhibition of TGFβ1 after AOM injection attenuated neurological decline, microglia activation, and neuroinflammation with no significant changes in liver damage. TGFβR2 ΔNeu mice administered AOM showed no effect on liver pathology but significantly reduced neurological decline compared to control mice. Microglia activation and neuroinflammation were attenuated in mice with pharmacological inhibition of TGFβ1 or in TGFβR2 ΔNeu mice. TGFβ1 increased chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and decreased C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) expression in HT-22 cells and reduced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) expression, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) expression, and phagocytosis activity in EOC-20 cells. Conclusion: Increased circulating TGFβ1 following acute liver failure results in activation of neuronal TGFβR2 signaling, driving neuroinflammation and neurological decline during AOM-induced HE.

AB - Background: Acute liver failure resulting from drug-induced liver injury can lead to the development of neurological complications called hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hepatic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is upregulated due to liver failure in mice and inhibiting circulating TGFβ reduced HE progression. However, the specific contributions of TGFβ1 on brain cell populations and neuroinflammation during HE are not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize hepatic and brain TGFβ1 signaling during acute liver failure and its contribution to HE progression using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches. Methods: C57Bl/6 or neuron-specific transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFβR2) null mice (TGFβR2 ΔNeu ) were treated with azoxymethane (AOM) to induce acute liver failure and HE. The activity of circulating TGFβ1 was inhibited in C57Bl/6 mice via injection of a neutralizing antibody against TGFβ1 (anti-TGFβ1) prior to AOM injection. In all mouse treatment groups, liver damage, neuroinflammation, and neurological deficits were assessed. Inflammatory signaling between neurons and microglia were investigated in in vitro studies through the use of pharmacological inhibitors of TGFβ1 signaling in HT-22 and EOC-20 cells. Results: TGFβ1 was expressed and upregulated in the liver following AOM injection. Pharmacological inhibition of TGFβ1 after AOM injection attenuated neurological decline, microglia activation, and neuroinflammation with no significant changes in liver damage. TGFβR2 ΔNeu mice administered AOM showed no effect on liver pathology but significantly reduced neurological decline compared to control mice. Microglia activation and neuroinflammation were attenuated in mice with pharmacological inhibition of TGFβ1 or in TGFβR2 ΔNeu mice. TGFβ1 increased chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and decreased C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) expression in HT-22 cells and reduced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) expression, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) expression, and phagocytosis activity in EOC-20 cells. Conclusion: Increased circulating TGFβ1 following acute liver failure results in activation of neuronal TGFβR2 signaling, driving neuroinflammation and neurological decline during AOM-induced HE.

KW - Acute liver failure

KW - Azoxymethane

KW - Microglia

KW - Necrosis

KW - Neuroinflammation

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