Gendered Expectations Distort Male-Female Differences in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Later Adulthood

Connor M. Sheehan, Elliot Tucker-Drob

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The ability of older adults to live independently is often assessed with a battery of questions known as Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Many of these questions query the difficulty conducting household activities that have been predominantly conducted by women (e.g., the ability to prepare a meal), especially for cohorts now in old age. Although previous research has documented gender differences in IADL limitations, it has not been documented whether IADLs equivalently measure the same latent construct for men and women. METHODS: We apply psychometric tests of measurement invariance to data from the 1998 Health and Retirement Study. We then estimate corrected models that account for violations of measurement invariance across genders. RESULTS: We find that IADLs do not equivalently measure same latent construct for men and women. We find that men are more likely not to do the IADL activities for reasons unrelated to health limitations, which may reflect gendered expectations regarding household activities. Accounting for this we still find that women report greater health-related IADL limitations than men. DISCUSSION: Researchers should be cautious making gender comparisons for IADLs without attending to the gender-specific measurement properties of many of the items of which the IADL is comprised.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)715-723
Number of pages9
JournalThe journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences
Volume74
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 12 2019

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Activities of Daily Living
adulthood
Aptitude
Health
gender
health
Retirement
Psychometrics
ability
Meals
meals
old age
retirement
psychometrics
Research Personnel
gender-specific factors
Research

Keywords

  • Disability
  • Gender
  • Independent living
  • Measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

Cite this

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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: The ability of older adults to live independently is often assessed with a battery of questions known as Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Many of these questions query the difficulty conducting household activities that have been predominantly conducted by women (e.g., the ability to prepare a meal), especially for cohorts now in old age. Although previous research has documented gender differences in IADL limitations, it has not been documented whether IADLs equivalently measure the same latent construct for men and women. METHODS: We apply psychometric tests of measurement invariance to data from the 1998 Health and Retirement Study. We then estimate corrected models that account for violations of measurement invariance across genders. RESULTS: We find that IADLs do not equivalently measure same latent construct for men and women. We find that men are more likely not to do the IADL activities for reasons unrelated to health limitations, which may reflect gendered expectations regarding household activities. Accounting for this we still find that women report greater health-related IADL limitations than men. DISCUSSION: Researchers should be cautious making gender comparisons for IADLs without attending to the gender-specific measurement properties of many of the items of which the IADL is comprised.",
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AU - Tucker-Drob, Elliot

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N2 - OBJECTIVES: The ability of older adults to live independently is often assessed with a battery of questions known as Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Many of these questions query the difficulty conducting household activities that have been predominantly conducted by women (e.g., the ability to prepare a meal), especially for cohorts now in old age. Although previous research has documented gender differences in IADL limitations, it has not been documented whether IADLs equivalently measure the same latent construct for men and women. METHODS: We apply psychometric tests of measurement invariance to data from the 1998 Health and Retirement Study. We then estimate corrected models that account for violations of measurement invariance across genders. RESULTS: We find that IADLs do not equivalently measure same latent construct for men and women. We find that men are more likely not to do the IADL activities for reasons unrelated to health limitations, which may reflect gendered expectations regarding household activities. Accounting for this we still find that women report greater health-related IADL limitations than men. DISCUSSION: Researchers should be cautious making gender comparisons for IADLs without attending to the gender-specific measurement properties of many of the items of which the IADL is comprised.

AB - OBJECTIVES: The ability of older adults to live independently is often assessed with a battery of questions known as Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Many of these questions query the difficulty conducting household activities that have been predominantly conducted by women (e.g., the ability to prepare a meal), especially for cohorts now in old age. Although previous research has documented gender differences in IADL limitations, it has not been documented whether IADLs equivalently measure the same latent construct for men and women. METHODS: We apply psychometric tests of measurement invariance to data from the 1998 Health and Retirement Study. We then estimate corrected models that account for violations of measurement invariance across genders. RESULTS: We find that IADLs do not equivalently measure same latent construct for men and women. We find that men are more likely not to do the IADL activities for reasons unrelated to health limitations, which may reflect gendered expectations regarding household activities. Accounting for this we still find that women report greater health-related IADL limitations than men. DISCUSSION: Researchers should be cautious making gender comparisons for IADLs without attending to the gender-specific measurement properties of many of the items of which the IADL is comprised.

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