National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations

Methodology and results summary

Max Hirshkowitz, Kaitlyn Whiton, Steven M. Albert, Cathy Alessi, Oliviero Bruni, Lydia DonCarlos, Nancy L Hazen-Swann, John Herman, Eliot S. Katz, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David N. Neubauer, Anne E. O'Donnell, Maurice Ohayon, John Peever, Robert Rawding, Ramesh C. Sachdeva, Belinda Setters, Michael V. Vitiello, J. Catesby Ware, Paula J. Adams Hillard

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    644 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objective: The objective was to conduct a scientifically rigorous update to the National Sleep Foundation's sleep duration recommendations. Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened an 18-member multidisciplinary expert panel, representing 12 stakeholder organizations, to evaluate scientific literature concerning sleep duration recommendations. We determined expert recommendations for sufficient sleep durations across the lifespan using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Results: The panel agreed that, for healthy individuals with normal sleep, the appropriate sleep duration for newborns is between 14 and 17 hours, infants between 12 and 15 hours, toddlers between 11 and 14 hours, preschoolers between 10 and 13 hours, and school-aged children between 9 and 11 hours. For teenagers, 8 to 10 hours was considered appropriate, 7 to 9 hours for young adults and adults, and 7 to 8 hours of sleep for older adults. Conclusions: Sufficient sleep duration requirements vary across the lifespan and from person to person. The recommendations reported here represent guidelines for healthy individuals and those not suffering from a sleep disorder. Sleep durations outside the recommended range may be appropriate, but deviating far from the normal range is rare. Individuals who habitually sleep outside the normal range may be exhibiting signs or symptoms of serious health problems or, if done volitionally, may be compromising their health and well-being.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)40-43
    Number of pages4
    JournalSleep Health
    Volume1
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Mar 1 2015

    Fingerprint

    Sleep
    Reference Values
    Literature
    Health
    Signs and Symptoms
    Young Adult
    Organizations
    Newborn Infant
    Guidelines

    Keywords

    • Lifespan sleep
    • National Sleep Foundation
    • RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method
    • Sleep adequacy
    • Sleep by age
    • Sleep duration
    • Sleep sufficiency
    • Sleep time recommendations

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Behavioral Neuroscience

    Cite this

    Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S. M., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., DonCarlos, L., ... Adams Hillard, P. J. (2015). National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary. Sleep Health, 1(1), 40-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010

    National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations : Methodology and results summary. / Hirshkowitz, Max; Whiton, Kaitlyn; Albert, Steven M.; Alessi, Cathy; Bruni, Oliviero; DonCarlos, Lydia; Hazen-Swann, Nancy L; Herman, John; Katz, Eliot S.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Neubauer, David N.; O'Donnell, Anne E.; Ohayon, Maurice; Peever, John; Rawding, Robert; Sachdeva, Ramesh C.; Setters, Belinda; Vitiello, Michael V.; Ware, J. Catesby; Adams Hillard, Paula J.

    In: Sleep Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, 01.03.2015, p. 40-43.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hirshkowitz, M, Whiton, K, Albert, SM, Alessi, C, Bruni, O, DonCarlos, L, Hazen-Swann, NL, Herman, J, Katz, ES, Kheirandish-Gozal, L, Neubauer, DN, O'Donnell, AE, Ohayon, M, Peever, J, Rawding, R, Sachdeva, RC, Setters, B, Vitiello, MV, Ware, JC & Adams Hillard, PJ 2015, 'National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary', Sleep Health, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 40-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010
    Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L et al. National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary. Sleep Health. 2015 Mar 1;1(1):40-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010
    Hirshkowitz, Max ; Whiton, Kaitlyn ; Albert, Steven M. ; Alessi, Cathy ; Bruni, Oliviero ; DonCarlos, Lydia ; Hazen-Swann, Nancy L ; Herman, John ; Katz, Eliot S. ; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila ; Neubauer, David N. ; O'Donnell, Anne E. ; Ohayon, Maurice ; Peever, John ; Rawding, Robert ; Sachdeva, Ramesh C. ; Setters, Belinda ; Vitiello, Michael V. ; Ware, J. Catesby ; Adams Hillard, Paula J. / National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations : Methodology and results summary. In: Sleep Health. 2015 ; Vol. 1, No. 1. pp. 40-43.
    @article{ee91222d085049c195d4b3563f61ae40,
    title = "National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary",
    abstract = "Objective: The objective was to conduct a scientifically rigorous update to the National Sleep Foundation's sleep duration recommendations. Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened an 18-member multidisciplinary expert panel, representing 12 stakeholder organizations, to evaluate scientific literature concerning sleep duration recommendations. We determined expert recommendations for sufficient sleep durations across the lifespan using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Results: The panel agreed that, for healthy individuals with normal sleep, the appropriate sleep duration for newborns is between 14 and 17 hours, infants between 12 and 15 hours, toddlers between 11 and 14 hours, preschoolers between 10 and 13 hours, and school-aged children between 9 and 11 hours. For teenagers, 8 to 10 hours was considered appropriate, 7 to 9 hours for young adults and adults, and 7 to 8 hours of sleep for older adults. Conclusions: Sufficient sleep duration requirements vary across the lifespan and from person to person. The recommendations reported here represent guidelines for healthy individuals and those not suffering from a sleep disorder. Sleep durations outside the recommended range may be appropriate, but deviating far from the normal range is rare. Individuals who habitually sleep outside the normal range may be exhibiting signs or symptoms of serious health problems or, if done volitionally, may be compromising their health and well-being.",
    keywords = "Lifespan sleep, National Sleep Foundation, RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, Sleep adequacy, Sleep by age, Sleep duration, Sleep sufficiency, Sleep time recommendations",
    author = "Max Hirshkowitz and Kaitlyn Whiton and Albert, {Steven M.} and Cathy Alessi and Oliviero Bruni and Lydia DonCarlos and Hazen-Swann, {Nancy L} and John Herman and Katz, {Eliot S.} and Leila Kheirandish-Gozal and Neubauer, {David N.} and O'Donnell, {Anne E.} and Maurice Ohayon and John Peever and Robert Rawding and Sachdeva, {Ramesh C.} and Belinda Setters and Vitiello, {Michael V.} and Ware, {J. Catesby} and {Adams Hillard}, {Paula J.}",
    year = "2015",
    month = "3",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "1",
    pages = "40--43",
    journal = "Sleep Health",
    issn = "2352-7218",
    publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - National sleep foundation's sleep time duration recommendations

    T2 - Methodology and results summary

    AU - Hirshkowitz, Max

    AU - Whiton, Kaitlyn

    AU - Albert, Steven M.

    AU - Alessi, Cathy

    AU - Bruni, Oliviero

    AU - DonCarlos, Lydia

    AU - Hazen-Swann, Nancy L

    AU - Herman, John

    AU - Katz, Eliot S.

    AU - Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    AU - Neubauer, David N.

    AU - O'Donnell, Anne E.

    AU - Ohayon, Maurice

    AU - Peever, John

    AU - Rawding, Robert

    AU - Sachdeva, Ramesh C.

    AU - Setters, Belinda

    AU - Vitiello, Michael V.

    AU - Ware, J. Catesby

    AU - Adams Hillard, Paula J.

    PY - 2015/3/1

    Y1 - 2015/3/1

    N2 - Objective: The objective was to conduct a scientifically rigorous update to the National Sleep Foundation's sleep duration recommendations. Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened an 18-member multidisciplinary expert panel, representing 12 stakeholder organizations, to evaluate scientific literature concerning sleep duration recommendations. We determined expert recommendations for sufficient sleep durations across the lifespan using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Results: The panel agreed that, for healthy individuals with normal sleep, the appropriate sleep duration for newborns is between 14 and 17 hours, infants between 12 and 15 hours, toddlers between 11 and 14 hours, preschoolers between 10 and 13 hours, and school-aged children between 9 and 11 hours. For teenagers, 8 to 10 hours was considered appropriate, 7 to 9 hours for young adults and adults, and 7 to 8 hours of sleep for older adults. Conclusions: Sufficient sleep duration requirements vary across the lifespan and from person to person. The recommendations reported here represent guidelines for healthy individuals and those not suffering from a sleep disorder. Sleep durations outside the recommended range may be appropriate, but deviating far from the normal range is rare. Individuals who habitually sleep outside the normal range may be exhibiting signs or symptoms of serious health problems or, if done volitionally, may be compromising their health and well-being.

    AB - Objective: The objective was to conduct a scientifically rigorous update to the National Sleep Foundation's sleep duration recommendations. Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened an 18-member multidisciplinary expert panel, representing 12 stakeholder organizations, to evaluate scientific literature concerning sleep duration recommendations. We determined expert recommendations for sufficient sleep durations across the lifespan using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Results: The panel agreed that, for healthy individuals with normal sleep, the appropriate sleep duration for newborns is between 14 and 17 hours, infants between 12 and 15 hours, toddlers between 11 and 14 hours, preschoolers between 10 and 13 hours, and school-aged children between 9 and 11 hours. For teenagers, 8 to 10 hours was considered appropriate, 7 to 9 hours for young adults and adults, and 7 to 8 hours of sleep for older adults. Conclusions: Sufficient sleep duration requirements vary across the lifespan and from person to person. The recommendations reported here represent guidelines for healthy individuals and those not suffering from a sleep disorder. Sleep durations outside the recommended range may be appropriate, but deviating far from the normal range is rare. Individuals who habitually sleep outside the normal range may be exhibiting signs or symptoms of serious health problems or, if done volitionally, may be compromising their health and well-being.

    KW - Lifespan sleep

    KW - National Sleep Foundation

    KW - RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method

    KW - Sleep adequacy

    KW - Sleep by age

    KW - Sleep duration

    KW - Sleep sufficiency

    KW - Sleep time recommendations

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84928173619&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84928173619&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010

    DO - 10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010

    M3 - Article

    VL - 1

    SP - 40

    EP - 43

    JO - Sleep Health

    JF - Sleep Health

    SN - 2352-7218

    IS - 1

    ER -